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(cfp) New geographies of HIV/AIDS in times of PrEP Setembro 4, 2017

Posted by paulo jorge vieira in academia, geografias das sexualidades, geographies of sexualities, lgbt no mundo.
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New geographies of HIV/AIDS in times of PrEP

Call for papers/panellists at the Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting, New Orleans, 10-14 April 2018 

 Convenors: Gavin Brown (University of Leicester) & Cesare Di Feliciantonio (Maynooth University)

 

Following the introduction and the expanding availability of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and improved uses of ‘treatment as prevention’ for those already infected with HIV, new infections-rates for HIV have started to decline, especially in those cities and among those populations where campaigning and public investments have been strongest. As argued by Auerbach and Hoppe (2015: 1), “getting PrEP to ‘work’ is more complicated than simply ‘getting drugs into bodies’”. Rather, PrEP embodies a range of interacting physiological, psychological and social realities that together affect (…) relationship dynamics, sexual cultures and social arrangements that have influence beyond HIV”.  In fact the use of PrEP (as well as the adherence to antiretroviral therapies, ARTs, for HIV-positive people) reshapes the meanings associated with categories such as ‘safe’, ‘bareback’ and ‘raw’ sex, offering new possibilities for empowerment as well as new forms of biopower (Dean, 2015; Preciado, 2015).  Given the persistent inequalities in the access and availability of PrEP, we think there is the need for a serious engagement by geographers and social scientists in producing knowledge about the emerging social and spatial dimensions of HIV prevention and treatment, including the ways in which new socio-technical assemblages of treatment and prevent have reconfigured the social, cultural, and sexual lives of people with (and at risk of infection from) HIV.

We invite contributions around (but not limited to) the following topics/questions:

  • the uneven geographies of PrEP accessibility and availability;
  • the political economy of PrEP;
  • the socio-technical materialities of PrEP;
  • PrEP, race, gender and class;
  • how PrEP impacts upon HIV-related acceptance and stigma;
  • the (uneven) social and spatial dimensions of the persistence of “Truvada whores” stigma (Calabrese and Underhill, 2015);
  • the sexual citizenship of undetectability;
  • PrEP as community-based activism;
  • PrEP as the expression of biopower;
  • comparative perspectives on campaigns, policies and strategies to implement PrEP access;
  • intersections between PrEP-related activism and HIV+-related activism
  • the geographical implications of ‘undetectability’;

 

Expressions of interest

We intend to organize a paper or panel session depending on the preferences of the participants. If interested, please contact Gavin Brown (gpb10@leicester.ac.uk) and Cesare Di Feliciantonio (difeliciantoniocesare@gmail.com) by October 6th; in the email please include a 250-words abstract if you prefer a paper session or a short outline (up to 7 lines) if you prefer a panel session. We will try to arrange the best format solution accordingly.

 

References

Auerbach, J. D. and Hoppe, T. A. 2015. Beyond “getting drugs into bodies”: social science perspectives on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. Journal of the International AIDS Society 18(suppl. 3), http://dx.doi.org/10.7448/IAS.18.4.19983 [last visit: August 24th 2017]

Calabrese, S. K. and  Underhill, K. 2015. How Stigma Surrounding the Use of HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Undermines Prevention and Pleasure: A Call to Destigmatize “Truvada Whores”. American Journal of Public Health 105(10): 1960-4.

Dean, T. 2015. Mediated intimacies: raw sex, Truvada, and the biopolitics of chemoprophylaxis. Sexualities 18(1/2): 224-46.

Preciado, P. 2015. Condoms chimiques. Libération 11/06, http://www.liberation.fr/chroniques/2015/06/11/condoms-chimiques_1327747[last visit: August 24th 2017]

Anúncios

IJURR 1977-2017: The 40th Anniversary Virtual Issue Junho 1, 2017

Posted by paulo jorge vieira in academia, geografias, Uncategorized.
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Aqui fica um número especial da revista International Journal of Urban and Regional Research que comemora 40 anos em 2017. Um numero acessivel que começa com um texto de David Harvey de 1978 e que publica um interessante conjunto de textos.

 

Wiley
Celebrating 40 years of critical urban research
IJURR 1977-2017: The 40th Anniversary Virtual Issue
Celebrating 40 years of critical urban research
For this 40th anniversary virtual issue we invited all of the previous Editors to choose a small number of papers that they felt were of particular significance during their time of working with the journal. Each of the former Editors who participated in the compilation of this 40th anniversary virtual issue has provided a brief commentary next to their selections.
Read the introduction, commentaries and articles on www.ijurr.org
Explore the virtual issue, full introduction and commentaries
The Urban Process under Capitalism: A Framework for Analysis
David Harvey (1978)

World City Formation: An Agenda for Research and Action
John Friedmann and Goetz Wolff (1982)

Postfordism in Question
Andrew Sayer (1989)

Neo‐Marshallian Nodes in Global Networks
Ash Amin and Nigel Thrift (1992)

The Cultural Economy of Cities
A.J Scott (1997)

Symbolic Use of Globalization in Urban Politics in Tokyo
Takashi Machimura (1998)

Democratization and Politics in South African Townships
Janet Cherry, Kris Jones and Jeremy Seekings (2000)

Place in Product
Harvey Molotch (2002)

The Transnational Capitalist Class and Contemporary Architecture in Globalizing Cities
Leslie Sklair (2005)

Struggling with the Creative Class
Jamie Peck (2005)

The Market as the New Emperor
Anne Haila (2007)

Municipal Neoliberalism and Municipal Socialism: Urban Political Economy in Latin America
Benjamin Goldfrank and Andrew Schrank (2009)

Slumdog Cities: Rethinking Subaltern Urbanism
Ananya Roy (2011)

Lagos, Koolhaas and Partisan Politics in Nigeria
Laurent Fourchard (2011)

Gentrifying the State, Gentrifying Participation: Elite Governance Programs in Delhi
D. Asher Ghertner (2011)

Technifying Public Space and Publicizing Infra-structures: Exploring New Urban Political Ecologies through the Square of General Vara del Rey
Fernando DomÍnguez Rubio and Uriel Fogué (2013)

How did Finance Capital Infiltrate the World of the Urban Poor? Homeownership and  Social Fragmentation in a Spanish Neighborhood
Jaime Palomera (2014)

Absolute Traffic: Infrastructural Aptitude in Urban Indonesia
Doreen Lee (2015)

Reconstituting the Possible: Lefebvre, Utopia and the Urban Question
David Pinder (2015)

‘Eco’ For Whom? Envisioning Eco-urbanism in the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city, China
Federico Caprotti, Cecilia Springer and Nichola Harmer (2015)

Assembling and Spilling-Over: Towards an ‘Ethnography of Cement’ in a Palestinian Refugee Camp
Nasser Abourahme (2015)

Rethinking Urban Epidemiology: Natures, Networks and Materialities
Meike Wolf (2016)

Reappearance of the Public: Placemaking, Minoritization and Resistance in Detroit
Alesia Montgomery (2016)

Toward the Networked City? Translating Technological ideals and Planning Models in Water and Sanitation Systems in Dar es Salaam
Jochen Monstadt and Sophie Schramm (2017)

Informal Housing in the United States

Noah J. Durst and Jake Wegmann (2017)

Download the Virtual Issue
IJURR Volume 1 Virtual Issue (1977)
IJURR Volume 1 Virtual Issue (1977)
As part of the IJURR 40th Anniversary celebrations, we have also brought together the first volume of IJURR from 1977, as a Virtual Issue, introduced by the founding editor, Michael Harloe.

This Virtual Issue is free to view for one year

Download the Virtual Issue
Collage compiled from images in the public realm. We thank the Riley Foundation for permission to reproduce Michael Harloe – Vice Chancellor, Salford by Harold F. Riley, 2009, Oil on Canvas (© The Riley Archive, WB261. All Rights Reserved)

the urgency of intersectionality Março 6, 2017

Posted by paulo jorge vieira in academia, activismo, Feminismos, Uncategorized.
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(com legendas em português)

“The urgency of intersectionality” a Ted Talk with Kimberlé Crenshaw.

Now more than ever, it’s important to look boldly at the reality of race and gender bias — and understand how the two can combine to create even more harm. Kimberlé Crenshaw uses the term “intersectionality” to describe this phenomenon; as she says, if you’re standing in the path of multiple forms of exclusion, you’re likely to get hit by both. In this moving talk, she calls on us to bear witness to this reality and speak up for victims of prejudice.

You could read here the paper of Kimberle Crenshaw “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color“(Stanford Law Review,Vol. 43, No. 6 (Jul., 1991), pp. 1241-1299)

Cultural Geography Março 5, 2017

Posted by paulo jorge vieira in academia, geografias, Uncategorized.
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CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY Cultural Geography is a series of intellectual and politicized engagements with the world. Cultural Geography is one of many styles of thought in human geographies that is not fixed within any particular time or space.

 

The academic field of cultural geography has been on a long path of unfolding intellectual thought and reshaping of academic idea’s. For most cultural geographers there are 5 clearly distinctive strands or themes across the discipline. These are not likely to be the only ones but seem to make sense when considering the contemporary Cultural Geographic Thought. The five strands or themes of Cultural Geography are as follows:

Culture as a distribution of things Includes everyday personal items we see around us regularly such as furniture, clothes and household items, as well as larger scale items, such as more public artefacts like buildings and transport networks such as railway line distribution and roads and monuments. This pattern of material artefacts can tell us a lot about the social, economic and political dynamics and dimensions of Cultures. A central concern of Cultural Geography

Culture as a way of life –  The most democratising and recurring aspect within Anglo/American/Australasian Cultural Geography by far. There has often been a profoundly relativist appreciation for the diversity in and through place, space and temporality.

A consistent theme is the assortment of practices that constitute people and place, life and landscape. The values, beliefs, meanings, languages, and practices that make up people way of life – these are however, mobile and mutable but still, have remained a centrality in Cultural Geography and Spatial Sociology (amongst countless other human geographies).

Culture as meaning – Understanding the meanings that people attach to places and to landscapes is no minor matter. For example, battles are raged on daily basis in order to control religious sites; city streets can become filled with people protesting the loss of space in the public sphere and loss fuel politics over design and location of war memorial sites.

Culture as doing – For some, such as Marxists, the perspective usually sees culture and cultural geography as something that is done. Recently, work has moved away from this Philosophical Anthropology and towards more general notions of life that can reinstate the Epicurean materiality, more often than not under the general heading of performance. This attempts to reinstate the worlds diverse richness which is often embedded in discourse and conventional academic accounts as a ‘given’ everyday life. When actually really thought abo,ut the world really is very overwhelming in its richness, causing more phenomenological and differing epistemologies. This is in order to understand action and affect – This geography tends to be overly hyperactive and almost comes over as ‘theatrical’.

Culture as power – In many significant ways this strand or theme of culture as power often stands out in comparison to the other four previously mentioned strands or themes, due to the fact that power is implicit in each of them, for example – meaning is contested. Even though power itself is not often subject to cultural geographical analysis, it is critiques of power that are usually of prominence in cultural geographical analysis, study and research

A predominant idea in Cultural Geography is, unsurprisingly, ‘thinking spatially about culture, and thinking culturally about Space’.

Over space and time ideas and understandings of power have shifted away from models based on the power of one group over others, but more towards the those involving the power to do things.

As Anderson et al (2003) point out that it is not only domination that power relations are based on in the modern world, but also ‘seduction, influence, persuasion, capacity, ability, manipulation, consent, compromise, subversion, control and so on.’

Geographical study and research on social stratification or ‘class’ seems to have been supplemented and also weakened by the geographical analyses of power relations built on political ideologies, gender, lifestyle, nature, race, sexual orientation, nationality, ethnicity and so on.

Analysis and critique of power remain of central importance to cultural geography as space is bound up in the constitution of justice, inequalities and oppression.

By pointing to the sites of oppression and resistance geographers have revealed the differing scales at which power relations operate and how space and spatiality’s are manipulated by both the powerful and the marginalised – In turn, geographers have become increasingly preoccupied with studying and researching the geographies of; Marxism; Feminism; Development and International Relations / Studies; Queer Theory; Postcolonialism; and the like. The main reason for the shift towards these ‘geographies’ is in order to better identify and understand the ways in which space, place and nature are implicated in, as well as, constitutive of unjust, unequal and uneven power relations. And of course with the aim of making suggestions of ways in which these relations can be addressed, contested and redressed.

 

via CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY — MatthewDavenport1985@Geography&Sociology

(cfp) Contested Borderscapes – Transnational Geographies vis-à-vis Fortress Europe Janeiro 26, 2017

Posted by paulo jorge vieira in academia, activismo, geografias, migrações, teoria social, Uncategorized.
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Call for Papers

Contested Borderscapes

Transnational Geographies vis-à-vis Fortress Europe

September 28 – October 1, 2017

International Conference

Mytilene, Lesvos (Greece)

Urban Geography and Planning Laboratory,

“Invisible Cities” research team & Population Movements Laboratory

Department of Geography, University of the Aegean

http://www.contested-borderscapes.net

lesbos_3429659b

Introduction

 

European member states are signatories to the Geneva Convention Related to the Status of Refugees.

Human rights and dignity are respected in detention centres across Europe.

An electrified fence was built to protect the nation-state from illegal intruders.

Traffickers are responsible for deaths by drowning in the Aegean and Mediterranean seas.

Deportations are voluntary returns.

Turkey is a safe country.

War is peace.

Freedom is slavery.

Ignorance is strength.

 

In 2016, Oxford English Dictionary declared “post-truth” the word of the year. In this Orwellian moment, the movement of refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants across the increasingly militarised borders of Europe have instigated a socio-spatial debate about the limits of human rights, national sovereignties, continental values, precipitating and contributing to the ongoing condition of European crises. Although in the era of globalisation borders constitute porous passages for capital and commodities, at the same time they have hardened and ossified as “new enclosures” seeking to immobilise migrant and refugee populations. Fortress Europe emerges as a complex of new state control mechanisms, freshly erected border fences, newly built detention centres and improvised refugee camps; together, these technologies of migration management aim at the criminalisation, classification, stigmatisation, and biopolitical control of moving populations, fomented by xenophobic politics, and managed by humanitarian subcontractors. In this hostile climate, people on the move contest European border regimes, peripheries, and cityscapes by claiming spatial justice and political visibility while creating a nexus of emerging common spaces. They are joined by activists defending their right to movement, who are engaged in efforts to “welcome refugees” into a shrinking and contested public sphere, into alternative and self-organised social spaces, responding to the humanitarian crises wrought by militarism, violence, and structural adjustment with solidarity, stemming from a larger vision of sharing in each other’s struggles for survival and social transformation.

The island of Lesvos is a space of multiple histories of refugee passage, now reinvented as a “hot spot” in the contemporary European regime of migration management, but also reimagined by people who live there as a space of social solidarity with migrant struggles. It thus constitutes one epicentre, or “contested borderscape” of Fortress Europe, and a place where we might learn from local struggles and movements against its murderous politics. If, over the past year, the shores and seaways of Lesvos (“Lesbos”) gained international visibility as the backdrop to untold human suffering, loss, and survival, the purpose of gathering here is not to consume it as a spectacle; instead, we seek to learn from how people here have responded to, and organised in the urgency of what has became mediatised as “the refugee crisis.” The main aim of this international conference is to create a space of critical reflection in which academics, artists, and activists from different disciplines, backgrounds, and locations, can strategise, organise, and analyse the social landscapes of border-spaces such as this, and their reverberations for anti-border politics elsewhere.

We welcome proposals for various kinds of interventions, including, but not limited to: presentations of formal academic papers falling under one of the following five themes; brief provocations leading to open discussions; performance lectures; installations; exhibitions or screenings of visual work (e.g., film, photography, etc.); workshops (sharing practical knowledge, working through a particular idea or problem, teaching a methodology, approach, or framework). We wish to emphasise multidirectional discussion and open debate of contested—rather than “settled”—issues, as opposed to unidirectional knowledge transmission by institutionally acknowledged academic experts. As such, the conference will open with a plenary of local activists, and will culminate in a general assembly of all participants, mapping possibilities for future collaboration and exchange across and beyond Fortress Europe.

 

Topics

Track 1: The notion of the border

  • Borderlands, borderscapes, borderlines, border regimes
  • Borders and nomadism, diaspora, travel, heterotopias, and otherness
  • In-between spaces, hybrid spaces, and threshold spaces vis-à-vis border fortification, militarisation, enclaves, ghettos, walling urbanism, state territories
  • Bridging political, social, national, gender, religion and identity borders, boundaries and communities
  • No borders, open borders, and border-crossing struggles, movements, and activism

 

Track 2: Migrants’ commoning practices

  • Autonomy of migration and transnationalism
  • Mobile common space; strategies and practices for survival, struggle, solidarity, networking, communication, mutual aid of the moving populations.
  • Collective and sharing practices in migrants’ informal settlements and camps
  • Social solidarity, connections between the social struggles of the locals and the migrants; social philanthropy, humanitarianism, volunteering and NGO’s industry
  • Migrants’ social centres, squatted buildings, and self-organised housing projects

 

Track 3: New intersectional enclosures

  • New enclosure policies, forced displacement, dispossession and grabbing of the means of production and reproduction, permanence of so-called primitive accumulation
  • Class aspects of immigration, cheap workforce, surplus reserved army of unemployment
  • Emergence of nationalistic-racist-fascist rhetoric and practice, (for instance, racist locals’ committees, the role of church and media)
  • Gendered aspects of immigration (women, lgbtq+, sexism, gendered violence, pregnancy)
  • Age aspects of immigration (children and elderly people)
  • Disability and immigration
  • Cultural re-appropriation of moving populations
  • Slavery, trafficking, human organs’ trafficking

 

Track 4: State and Hyperstate migrant policies

  • Fortress Europe, detention centers, hot spots, relocation policies, new border fences
  • Law geographies, divisions between refugees and immigrants, criminalization and illegalization of border crossing, the right to citizenship and asylum
  • Fear policies, xenophobia and biopolitics
  • Health geographies, biosecurity and border controls
  • Neocolonialism, geopolitics and war

 

Track 5: Representations and communication

  • Cultural representations of the Other
  • Landscape and representations of the Other
  • Newcomers – new ideas – new cultural relations
  • Art and multicultural representations
  • Newcomers and e-books, e-sharing, horizontal e-actions
  • Other history, other museum, oral history of newcomers

 

Submission Procedure

We welcome proposals for various kinds of interventions, including, but not limited to: presentations of formal academic papers; brief provocations leading to open discussions; performance lectures; installations; exhibitions or screenings of visual work (e.g., film, photography, etc.); workshops (sharing practical knowledge, working through a particular idea or problem, teaching a methodology, approach, or framework).

 

Interested contributors are invited to submit by 1 March 2017 an abstract of maximum 500 words. Abstracts should include: title, keywords, track name, name of the author(s), name of the presenter, affiliation and full contact details (please fill the submission form, link). Authors will be notified by March 20, 2016, about the status of their proposals. There are no fees but we do not have funds to cover travel expenses. The organisers expect an edited volume to result from the gathering. Questions can be directed to contestborders@gmail.com.

 

Important Dates

Abstracts Submission Deadline: March 1, 2017

Notification of Acceptance: March 20, 2017

Conference: Mytilene, Department of Geography, University of the Aegean, September 28 – October 1, 2017

 

Inquiries

Inquiries may be directed to: contestborders@gmail.com

http://www.contested-borderscapes.net

(cfp) ‘Doing Sex: Men, Masculinity and Sexual Practices’ Janeiro 25, 2017

Posted by paulo jorge vieira in academia, geografias das sexualidades, geographies of sexualities, queer theory, sexualidades e géneros, Uncategorized.
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the_masculine_mystique

Call for Papers
Doing Sex: Men, Masculinity and Sexual Practices’ Conference
Newcastle University, United Kingdom
July 14-15, 2017
Submission Deadline: February 6th 2017

 

This colloquium aims to bring together the study of sexual practices and desires and critical studies of men and masculinities. We are explicitly interested in returning to some of the provocations of sexology in the twentieth century to think through men’s sexuality today. For Kinsey there is an inherent paradox in “man’s absorbing interest in sex and his astounding ignorance of it; his desire to know and his unwillingness to face the facts.” Whilst we can see some of the failings and problematics in Kinsey, Masters & Johnson, and other Sexologists, it is critical to reflect not simply as criticism of these, but also of what they are suggestive and enlightening.

 

Today, nearly seventy years after the publication of Kinsey’s Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, after the sexual revolution, after the censorship trials, after the rise of feminism, queer theory, increased visibility of trans* and genderqueer identities, and LGBT activism, we wish to ask: what are men doing sexually? Men’s sexual practices, more often than not, are pathologized, diagnosed, managed, treated. Whilst productive and valuable work has been undertaken in the areas of rape culture and sexual violence, this symposium aims to explore the diversity and scope of male sexual practices. More specifically, current discussions on masculinity and sexuality tend to marginalize the fear, the excitement, the shame, the pleasure and the embarrassment that men experience when doing sex. This symposium addresses this by focusing on men doing sex.

 

For more information see: https://doingsexconference.wordpress.com/

FIFTY-YEARS ON: The Right to the City Janeiro 24, 2017

Posted by paulo jorge vieira in academia, activismo, cidades, geografias, teoria e epistemologia da geografia, teoria social, Uncategorized.
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FIFTY-YEARS ON: The Right to the City

Andy Merrifield

2017 marks the Golden Jubilee of Henri Lefebvre’s Right to the City, his “cry and demand” for a more participatory and democratic city life. It’s a cause both to celebrate and commiserate. But celebration and commiseration have typically been part and parcel of the Left’s dialectic, a dialectic that cuts inside us as people as well as political subjects. For everyone concerned about the fate of our cities, before us now lies a massive expansion of urban life across the planet, an opening up of urban horizons and frontiers, matched by a closing of the political mind, a withering of the established political will.

Ours is an urban society, set to be evermore so during the decades to come; yet political leaders almost everywhere are putting up walls, cowering before provincial smallness rather than embracing cosmopolitan vastness. When Lefebvre long ago spoke of “planetary urbanisation,” he did so because he thought the scope and possibility for the right to the city might enlarge, that our narrative about cities might become bigger and more inclusive. The right to the city needed to flourish within this immensity, he said, had to understand it, keep its frame of reference and plane of immanence open.

Lefebvre announced the right to the city at the centenary of Marx’s Capital, doing so with a self-avowed “cavalier intention.” Urbanisation, for him, was and still is a “revolutionary” process in which assorted ruling classes played and continue to play the dominant role. It’s they who initiate the drive to totalise the productive forces, to colonise and commodify land, to valorise people and nature. Just as they’ve fracked deep into the earth and power-drilled monetised value from nature, ruling classes now frack into human nature as well, power-drilling value from different aspects of everyday life, from land and housing, from the entire public realm.

Lefebvre, though, never imagined that urbanisation would be everywhere, that bricks and mortar, freeways and highways would predominate every which way, that all green space would turn grey; neither was he saying that cities would quantitatively overwhelm the planet. (That’s why he would have been radically at odds with the empirics of UN-Habitat’s “Urban Age” thesis.) Rather, as his commemoration of Marx’s Capital implies, he was warning of the closing of the circle of a particular form of post-war capitalism, one that defines itself less through a model of industrial or agricultural production and more and more through an actual production of space.

This system produces planetary geography as a commodity, as a pure financial asset, using and abusing people and places as strategies to accumulate capital. The process embroils everybody, no matter where; even when it doesn’t embroil, when it abandons people and places, it embroils. Urban society today is tantamount to the progressive production of evermore frackable spatial units. In a way, I like to think Lefebvre was hoping his thesis would become untrue, that the circle can never be complete, that it has to stop, or else be diverted, even if there’s no going back, that urban society, like it or not, is here to stay.

Urban society is thus the battle ground for new forms of radical and progressive politics: it has to be. Lefebvre affirmed this not out of personal whim: capitalism affirmed it out of historical necessity, as our “objective” reality, as an arena in which we all must now engage, willy-nilly. His most explicit reference to planetary urbanisation came later in life, in a valedictory essay from 1989, “Quand la ville se perd dans une métamorphose planétaire,” published two years before his death.

His precise language here is worth pondering on for a moment. Menace stalks us, Lefebvre says; not so much of “planetary urbanisation” but of “the planetarisation of the urban” (“la planétarisation de l’urbain”). The ordering is telling. For the urban doesn’t so much spread as it becomes the vortex for sucking in everything the planet offers: its land and wealth, its capital and power, its culture and people—its dispensable labour-power. It’s this sucking in of people and goods, of capital and information that fuels the urban machine, that makes it so dynamic as well as so destabilising, because its energising and totalising force “expulses” (expels) people, “secretes” what Lefebvre calls a “residue.” This expulsion process makes urban space expand, lets it push itself out, has it further entangle rural space, and disentangle rural life.

Lefebvre says every big system leaves a residue that escapes it, that is chewed up and spat out by it. Every whole leaves a remainder. It’s an idea most forcefully articulated in Metaphilosophy, Lefebvre’s dense takedown of traditional philosophy, published a couple of years prior to The Right to the City. In Metaphilosophy, Lefebvre says that totalisations like global capitalism always exhibit leakiness, have internal contradictions that both structure and de-structure. Totalisation can never be total; it always secretes and expels a “residual element,” its Other. There’ll always be people who don’t fit into any whole, who don’t want to fit in, who aren’t allowed to fit in. They’re the stuff left over after all the metrics are totted up, after everything has seemingly been accounted for: le reste after la somme. They’re the philosophical anti-concepts, an affirmation of remainders, of marginal dregs, a growing planetary constituency.

Residues are people who feel the periphery inside them, who identify with the periphery, even if sometimes they’re located in the core. Residues exist in the world of work: precarious and downsized workers, informal and gig economy workers, petty service sector and agricultural workers—residues are workers without regularity, without salaries and security, without benefits and pensions; they’re workers without any real stake in the future of work.

Residues are refugees rejected and rebuked, profiled and patrolled no matter where they wander. They’re displacees, people forced off the land, thrown out of their housing (by impersonal property markets and violent eviction), whose homes have been repossessed, whose living space teeters on the geographical and economic edge. Residues come from the city as well as the countryside and congregate in a space that’s often somewhere in-between, neither traditional city nor traditional countryside. I call this somewhere in-between the global banlieue; I mean it literally and metaphorically, as a concrete and potential space, as a place of political encounter, one not yet fully glimpsed.

Resides are the NINJA (No Income, No Job, No Asset) generation; Greeks who feel the brunt of the Troika austerity initiatives; dispossessed Arab and African youth in French suburbs; Detroiters beholden to “Emergency Managers”; Palestinians lobbing rocks at Israeli tanks; Rojava Kurds in northern Syria; Indignados on the streets of Spain; “June Days” Brazilians protesting public transport hikes; occupiers in Istanbul’s Gezi Park; Umbrella kids in Hong Kong’s Occupy Central; Nuitards staked out around Paris’s Place de la République. The list goes on, and on.

The spirit of Metaphilosophy gets worked through The Right to the City. Planetary urbanisation is itself a metaphilosophical category, a will to totalise, a discontinuity within continuity, a difference in repetition, a breakdown of old industrial society, and its supersession—its overcoming—by a new spatial form: diffusive, unbound and apparently planetary in its reach, beyond any city-rural breach. Thus a profound existential problem is displaced onto the plane of urban society where it now transpires as a complex political dilemma, an attempt to forge a new humanitarianism out of the “bad side” of capitalist development. Capitalism’s cutting edge is a bleeding edge for ordinary people.

While planetary urbanisation has to be a theory trying to figure out totalisation under contemporary capitalism, it shouldn’t itself be a totalising theory. Instead, it’s a theory of residues within a vortex, an attempt to piece together a politics of residues, a politics of remainders in the whole. Lefebvre even suggests that the political ante here is to formulate a new “revolutionary conception of citizenship.” Indeed, he says this is really what he meant by “the right to the city” all along. And this is the working hypothesis he’s bequeathed us fifty-years down the line, left us to figure out practically. The right to the city is about residues reclaiming (or claiming for the first time) their rights to a collective urban life, to an urban society they’re actively making yet are hitherto disenfranchised from: “the right to the city implies nothing less than a revolutionary conception of citizenship.”

So many people have been pushed off-limits these days that it’s extended the limit of limits, created a more expansive social space for a new conception of citizenship, for a citizenship still to be invented. In this guise, citizenship lies inside and beyond a passport, inside and beyond any official documentation. It doesn’t express a legal right bestowed by any institution of the bourgeois nation-state. What we’re talking about is a citizenship without a flag, without a country, without borders. At this point I can only label it a “shadow citizenship,” something phantom-like.

Still, many residues in America’s deindustrialised heartlands aren’t interested in expansive conceptions of citizenship. Nobody has ever shown them any, of course, offered them any. Meantime, these residues seem content with more reactionary kinds of enfranchisement; and when somebody promises it them, they jump, they vote Right. Now, there’s a common theme uniting the whole world: People recognising their own disenfranchisement. It has reached desperate depths. But frustration matched with vulnerability has enabled assorted demagogues (religious as well as political) to step in. Some have voiced populist ragings against the machine, created scapegoats galore, any old or new straw target, anything to further their vested interests and political ambitions. And many residues, for want of an alternative, have believed them.

But parochial nest-building is doomed over the longer term, retrogressive in our age where human interconnectivity has broadened and deepened. To see the world through the lens of planetary urbanisation thus has certain distinct advantages. After all, it’s a viewpoint expressive of commonality rather than difference, a mutually shared planet in which people who look different, who talk different from one another, who don’t know one another, who may even hate one another, have more in common than they might think.

That shared experience is an ever-growing mutuality of disadvantage and despair, of suffering and perhaps hope. There’s affinity even if it’s rarely acknowledged. The right to the city has to help us identify how this affinity gets recognised, how it gets mediated, undermined, upended by forces upending the planet, forces that work together, that throw everybody into a scary mix. The right to the city has to help us create new forms of organisation, new institutions that leap across the nationalist divide. How to invent a new, more “hospitable” form of citizenship that nourishes people’s sense of identity without crushing other people’s identity? How can people—residues—express and become themselves through their connection to urban society?

Jacques Derrida once wondered whether it was possible to define a modern cosmopolitanism that bypassed the nation-state. His response is uncannily similar to Lefebvre’s. Yes, Derrida said, it was and still is possible: through relatively-autonomous cities, independent from any state, separate nodes allied to one another through “forms of solidarity to be invented.” We’re still trying to invent this solidarity; so far it has alluded the Left. But Derrida urges us to make “yet another effort.” He uses an intriguing phase to describe the nemesis of disenfranchisement and dispossession: “villes-refuges”—“cities of refuge” (or sanctuary cities)—crucibles for a new kind of unconditional citizenship.

This ideal actually prevailed in 5th-Century Greece, voiced by Pericles, Athens’ first citizen, in his famous “Funeral Oration,” recounted by Thucydides in Peloponnesian War. Pericles commemorated Athenian war dead and wanted its citizens to remember how their system of government had “a different attitude than its neighbours towards military security.” Theirs was based on openness not closure, discussion not denial. “Our city is open to the world,” Pericles proclaimed, and Athenians should have “a confidence of liberality.” “We have no periodical deportations,” he said. “The greatness of our city brings it about that all good things from all over the world flow into us.” Athens was a paragon of urban citizenship everywhere, “a city that’s the school of all Greece.”

Five centuries on, the Old Testament spoke of cities of refuge set aside as sanctuaries for people, spaces of asylum to protect innocents—and sometimes the guilty: “These towns will be cities of refuge,” The Book of Numbers said (35: 15-17), “for the sons of Israel as well as for the stranger and the settler amongst you.” The Hebraic tradition recognises the right to an urban immunity and hospitality that goes way beyond mere particularism, a simple search for unique refuge: it’s a divine hope for a form of urban sovereignty where people could become wholly human.

What Derrida has in mind are cities of sanctuary for writers who undergo persecution because of their art and political views; but he hints, too, that the concept might apply to all displacees and emigres, to all asylum seekers and refugees—writers or otherwise. Might we broaden this notion even more to include residues in general, safeguarding all the rootless and landless effected by everyday trauma, by the ordinary madness of our political-economic system? A place of asylum where people can become wholly human?

“A new sovereignty of cities,” says Derrida, “would open up a novel space for rights which inter-state national rights have failed to open up.” “We dream of another concept,” he says, “of another right, of a potential right of the city” (emphasis added). Derrida knows this is “an experimentation of a right and a democracy to come.” He knows, like Lefebvre, it’s wishful-thinking, utopian, especially since he gives us little sense of what a “ville-refuge” might look like, let alone how it might be achieved.

Yet the concept might be closer to home than he thought. A number of US cities—Los Angeles, New York, Chicago, Oakland, San Francisco, Boston, Philadelphia and Providence—all recently pledged not to cooperate with Donald Trump’s promise to deport millions of illegal immigrants. Across the US, “sanctuary cities” are gearing up to oppose federal government and its immigration agents. Liberal urban bastions reaffirm their intention to defy the Trump administration. At the risk of losing millions dollars in federal support, they’ll act as bulwarks against mass deportation. These cities have no power to bestow “official” rights to people; but they have the power to resist, putting a new twist on struggles against federal government: this time it’s liberal cities not conservative states who counter what they see as unjust federal intervention.

In response to a crisis of political legitimation, the “spectre” of urban solidarity looms; minorities in cities recognise that national and international rights are “out of joint.” In a way, we now need to read Derrida’s idea of “villes-refuges” in conjunction not only with Lefebvre’s right to the city, but also with the former’s earlier Spectres of Marx, where he spoke of a “New International”; “a profound transformation,” Derrida called it, “projected over the long term, of international law, of its concepts and field of intervention.” This New International is “a link,” Derrida said, an affinity, a suffering and hope, still discreet, almost secret, without status or title, contract or coordination, party or country, national community or common belonging to a class.

We’re not yet sure what this International really is; we can’t name it anything positive. But it’s there nonetheless, we know it’s there, hope it’s there, out on the horizon, if we can look that far. We know it’s more needed than ever before, needed everywhere. It’s a ghostly dream-thought of a new status for the city, a right to and of the city, a will to belong to a democratic urban webbing, a solidarity of confederated assemblies interrogating the essence of politics and the role of the nation-state: just what is a citizen of the urban, a citadin(e) of the twenty-first century? Progressives will have their work cut out in this challenging year ahead. Meantime, à la tienne, Henri!…

In Defense of Cosmopolitanism Janeiro 22, 2017

Posted by paulo jorge vieira in academia, activismo, teoria social.
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These are dark times for cosmopolitans. Discontent with globalization and resentment towards minorities, immigrants, and intellectuals have fueled the rise of nationalism in Europe and the United States. Dressed in faux-neutral neologisms like “post-truth” and “alt-right,” propaganda, racism, and xenophobia have elbowed their way back into the mainstream. And cosmopolitans are being portrayed as a detached and indulgent elite.

Cosmopolitanism—the aspiration to become a citizen of the world—has become a tainted luxury good.

It might seem prudent, in this climate, to take distance from cosmopolitanism. That choice, however, leaves a distorted image of cosmopolitanism unchallenged and lets it become a casualty in the clash between nationalism and globalization. We must do better than that. If we want to fend off the globalization of ultra-nationalism, now is the time to take a stand for cosmopolitanism—extricating its broadminded attitude from its elitist parody, and putting it to work to temper nationalism and humanize globalization.

Taking such stand begins with remembering where contemporary cosmopolitanism came from and acknowledging how it lost its way.

How We Became Cosmopolitans

I became a cosmopolitan on August 5th, 1943, three decades before I was born. That afternoon, the Allies entered my hometown in southern Italy. The city was on its knees, but the children were jubilant. The war was beginning to end, and freedom had the taste of American chocolate bars. Soldiers threw them to the kids on the roadside as they rode their jeeps through town. My mother never forgot the one she caught.

Wartime stories like that were common when I was growing up, but they felt distant from my world and my life. It took me decades to realize how much they shaped both. Like many middle-class Europeans of their generation, my parents—who had both been first in their families to go to high school, who spent their whole adult lives in the same place, who never spoke a foreign language—insisted that I learn English and travel.

My parents embodied a distinction that the sociologist Robert Merton made in the 1950s  studying a small American town. The town’s influential members, he found, were either “locals” or “cosmopolitans.” The locals’ influence rested on strong ties to the town and relationships within it. The cosmopolitans’ rested on their knowledge and expertise. If locals could not imagine a life elsewhere, cosmopolitans seemed to be always preparing for it. Neither, however, left much and the town benefited from the contribution of both. That was back then. My generation’s cosmopolitans were urged to be more mobile.

So, at age 14, I found myself living and studying for a month with a small crowd of Spanish, French, and Germans in a small town in the north of England. It was the first time I felt at home in a place where I did not belong—or more precisely, that I felt like I belonged in a place I had not come from. That is how I began becoming a European. A few years later, when the Berlin Wall fell, it was glorious to be coming of age as one. The promise of cosmopolitanism as a way to a better life might have been at its zenith, but it seemed only dawn. For a moment, it really felt as if we were ending history, in Francis Fukuyama’s famous words, ushering the triumph of liberal democracy worldwide.

Big cities all over the world were swelling up with first-generation cosmopolitans like me, fleeing provincial worldviews. We flocked to places that promised not to put us in our place. We were curious invaders of each other’s countries. A peaceful army sent to dismantle nationalism by elders who’d been hurt by it.

My parents’ generation blessed, if ambivalently, our cosmopolitanism because it was an insurance policy as much as an aspiration. Born out of the rubble of nationalism, it was primarily a humanistic project—not an economic one. It emphasized commonality of experience and tolerance of differences. It should make us realize people unlike us were humans just like us, and replace superstition and suspicion—the pillars of tribalism—with curiosity and compassion. If we would study, dine, and make out with peers from other countries, we would be less likely to bomb each other in the future. When the European Union received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2012, I felt that my mum and dad should get a piece of it—and keep it next to the chip of Berlin Wall I had brought home two decades before.

By then, I was married to a woman born 15 miles from that first English town I lived in. Our parents did not share a language but had similar values. We taught in an academic institution that helps people live working lives across borders. Our children gave complicated answers to the simple question, “Where are you from?” and felt at home in a country that neither of us grew up in. And we had become alert to the skepticism about, and hostility towards, our way of life. Over the past few years, those have only grown. Having spent my life trying to become an educated cosmopolitan, I now fear that my generation has failed at cosmopolitanism, or worse, that we have failed cosmopolitanism.

Foot Soldiers of Globalization

The animosity between locals and cosmopolitans is nothing new. It has shaped Western civilization since Ancient Greece. Up to Merton’s time, however, locals and cosmopolitans, remained strange bedfellows. Now, it seems, they have split up, amplifying their differences and becoming locals in different tribes—a nationalist and a globalist one. Cosmopolitans have built their own tribe. A tribe of people unfit for tribalism, I once wrote. An inclusive, dispersed tribe—if such a thing exists—connected by unlimited international data plans and cheap airfare. But a tribe nonetheless. We commandeered big cities and settled tolerant enclaves like coffee shops, universities, and most of all, multinational corporations that let us make a living as we moved around.

While its origin was political, cosmopolitanism made us unfit for national government. Our lives were too mobile, our allegiances too unclear, our relationship to the state too ambivalent for us to be its trustworthy standard bearers. A cosmopolitan attitude comes with suspicion of people and politicians too tied to nation states, and makes us look suspicious to them in turn. But if politics could not pin us down, business set us up.

When globalization took off, we were ready. We had the mindset and skills needed to deal with and, let us face it, profit from the opening up of global markets. Cosmopolitan enthusiasm was redirected from a humanistic project to an economic one. We stopped taking marching orders from John Lennon and started taking them from Jack Welch. If most political leaders found imagining no countries very hard to do, it seemed almost too easy for corporate leaders to do so. Thus we became foot soldiers of globalization, setting out to turn the world into one of our cities. In hindsight, that was not just overreach. It was a betrayal of the very essence of cosmopolitanism: being a citizen of a varied world.

The wave of nationalism sweeping through the globe has been framed as a rejection of and a reaction to globalization. Some analysts focus on the economic devastation that globalization has brought to Western middle classes. Others focus on the threat that it poses to local social hierarchies and worldviews. Seen that way, nationalism is a blunt tool for those hurt by the cultural and economic blows of globalization to strike back. A blunt old tool, it must be noted, familiar to the kind of provincial masculinity that has held power for centuries, and resents how a changing world imperils its local status.

What Is To Be Done?

Where does that leave cosmopolitans? Caught between the exhortation to empathize with nationalists, out of guilt for having left them behind, and the temptation to double down on globalization and build up de facto city-states out of comfort and fear.

Personally, I don’t lack empathy for angry nationalists. I count many among my family and friends. What I lack is sympathy for their prejudices and faith in the economic benefits of isolationism. Similarly, I have little sympathy for the evangelism and isolationism of worried globalists, many of whom I also count as family and friends.

Given where I come from and where I have got to, however, it is hard for me to choose a side. And I believe that choosing one, if one can choose at all, will not do anyone much good. Tribes seldom coexist peacefully and never for long—and picking a tribe gives cosmopolitanism away just when we need it most.

While they might sound similar, cosmopolitanism is not the same as globalization. One is a fragile personal attitude, the other is a relentless socio-economic force. One strives to humanize the different, the other to homogenize it. One celebrates curiosity, the other convenience. (Curiosity is often inconvenient.) One is embracing, the other expansive. One is easy to lose, the other hard to stop. Nationalism and globalization are more similar to each other than to cosmopolitanism, that way. And cosmopolitanism is what might help us counter nationalism and humanize globalization, pushing it to be a vehicle of freedom and opportunity for most, not just a privileged few.

A cosmopolitan tribe, however, preoccupied with protecting hard-earned cultural advances and economic advantages, will only make things worse. There is neither an undo button for globalization, nor a wall high enough to keep it at bay. But the challenge to humanize globalization is more urgent than ever—and it is both cultural and economic.  Doing so requires doubling down on cosmopolitanism, reclaiming its humanistic roots and acknowledging that its promise is far from fulfilled. There is more work to do.

Make Cosmopolitanism Good Again

One November morning last year, I found myself asking my mum about her childhood in the war. The night before, a terrorist attack had devastated a cosmopolitan neighborhood in Paris, not far from where I live. Watching the news, I learned that the German football team had not been able to leave the stadium where they were playing France when the terrorists hit. The French team had spent the night in the locker room too, in solidarity.

For some reason, that image stayed with me. When she called to ask if we were safe, I asked my mother if she could have ever imagined such camaraderie between French and German athletes when she was a child. “Of course I couldn’t have,” she replied. “Neither could I have imagined the freedoms you have enjoyed for decades, nor your way of life.”

I seldom think of my mother as daring, but I did then. Her generation dared to dream the unimaginable for mine and set us on a path to make it real.

It also struck me that, in many ways, our cosmopolitan enclaves are like that locker room in Paris. It took good people the best part of a century to build them. We will lose them if we just guard them. If we regard them as safe bubbles and do not have the courage to venture out and work on building many more—easier to get into, fairer, and roomier too.

In short, instead of just being welcoming, cosmopolitans must keep reaching out. Welcoming without reaching out, or expecting to be always welcome, is what cosmopolitans do when they get lazy or entitled. It’s time to stop being either.

Cosmopolitanism thrives outside bubbles. Inside any bubble, it soon dies. And if we let cosmopolitanism become a casualty of the conflict between nationalism and globalization, we will have betrayed the dreams and wasted the work of two generations. Our humanity, if not humanity—our worlds, if not the world—are at stake.


Gianpiero Petriglieri is Associate Professor of Organisational Behaviour at INSEAD, where he directs the Management Acceleration Programme, the school’s flagship executive program for emerging leaders. A medical doctor and psychiatrist by training, Gianpiero researches and practices leadership development. You can follow him on Twitter @gpetriglieri.

(cfp) Que(e)rying Gender and Tourism Research Janeiro 5, 2017

Posted by paulo jorge vieira in academia, geografias, geografias das sexualidades, geographies of sexualities, Uncategorized.
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Que(e)rying Gender and Tourism Research

Call For Papers: RGS-IBG Annual Conference, London, 29th August -1st September 2017.

Eveleigh Buck-Matthews, Coventry University
Dr Jaeyon Choe, Bournemouth University
Dr Claudia Eger, University of Warwick
Heather Jeffrey, University of Bedfordshire
Dr Caroline Scarles, University of Surrey

Sponsored by the Geographies of Leisure and Tourism Research Group (GLTRG) and the Gender and Feminist Geographies Research Group (GFGRG)

There is a growing body of knowledge concerned with gender and tourism, but still many voices remain unheard. Feminists are as varied as the subjectivities they so often research, but are joined together within a common emancipatory project. Queer theory can aid in an emancipatory project by destabilising foundational assumptions of normality (de Souza, Brewis & Rumens, 2016; Rumens & Tyler, 2016), and yet it has received little attention from tourism scholars. This session is designed to engage participants in a critical conversation on gender and feminism within tourism, hospitality and events research, to explore contentious issues among feminists and pave the way for collaboration. Papers concerning any aspect of gender within tourism, hospitality and events research are invited, as well as papers investigating multiple voices and perspectives within gender and tourism, which may relate to but not be confined by the following areas:

* Female hosts as guests and the reification of roles
* Masculinities in tourism, hospitality, and events
* LGBTQ voices in tourism, hospitality, and events
* Casual/precarious gendered workers
* Postcolonial feminism and subaltern studies in tourism
* Insights from queer theory for gender and tourism
* Feminist theory and practice

We are currently seeking contributions for a paper presentation session involving five presentations each lasting around 15 minutes with time for questions. The presentation may be executed in a traditional or innovative style, and we actively encourage a wide range of styles; including snapshots and pechakucha.
Please send abstracts (approx. 250 words) with author contact details to Heather Jeffrey (heather.jeffrey@beds.ac.uk) by the 1st February 2017.

Spaces of Depoliticisation, Spectres of Radical Politics Dezembro 28, 2016

Posted by paulo jorge vieira in academia, activismo, geografias, Uncategorized.
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The Post-Political and Its Discontents

Spaces of Depoliticisation, Spectres of Radical Politics

edited by Japhy Wilson and Erik Swyngedouw

livro

Through a multi-dimensional and fiercely contested assessment of contemporary depoliticisation, The Post-Political and Its Discontents urges us to confront the closure of our political horizons and re-imagine the possibility of emancipatory change.

Our age is celebrated as the triumph of liberal democracy. Old ideological battles have been decisively resolved in favour of freedom and the market. We are told that we have moved ‘beyond left and right’; that we are ‘all in this together’. Any remaining differences are to be addressed through expert knowledge, consensual deliberation and participatory governance. Yet the ‘end of history’ has also been marked by widespread disillusion with mainstream politics and a rise in nationalist and religious fundamentalisms. And now an explosion of popular protests is challenging technocratic regulation and the power of markets in the name of democracy itself.


This collection makes sense of this situation by critically engaging with the influential theory of ‘the post-political’ developed by Chantal Mouffe, Jacques Rancière, Slavoj Zizek and others. Through a multi-dimensional and fiercely contested assessment of contemporary depoliticisation, The Post-Political and Its Discontents urges us to confront the closure of our political horizons and re-imagine the possibility of emancipatory change.

***

Western democracies are only the political facade of economic power. A facade with colours, banners, and endless debates about sacrosanct democracy. We live in an era where we can discuss everything. With one exception: Democracy. She is there, an acquired dogma. Don’t touch, like a museum display. Elections have become an absurd comedy, shameful, in which the participation of the citizen is very weak, and governments represent the political commissionaires of economic power. There isn’t democracy, only the appearance of democracy. We live in a simulation. If we want real democracy, we will have to create it ourselves. José Saramago (2006)

In Seeing, the final installment of his magisterial urban trilogy, José Saramago offers an incisive dissection of our current political predicament. A few years after a strange episode of collective blindness, city administrators are preparing for a general election. The great day for the democratic festival is a miserably rainy Sunday, and once all the ballots are counted, it turns out that a large percentage of people have spoiled their votes. The city elites of the Party of the Left, the Party of the Middle, and the Party of the Right are disquieted, if not alarmed. Something must have gone wrong, these surmise, probably the bad weather . . . A week later, the elections are repeated. This time the weather is better, but the electoral outcome is even worse: 83 per cent of the citizens vote blank. What Saramago calls ‘the simple right not to follow any consensually established opinion’ deeply troubles the city government. One minister refers to it as a conspiracy against the democratic system itself. In its desperate attempt to understand what is going on, and to root out what must be an organised subversion against the sacrosanct democratic principle, the government declares ‘a state of emergency’, unleashing all manner of repressive tactics to uncover the masterminding source of the anti-democratic plot. But none can be found. In a final desperate attempt to make the city and its citizens come to their senses, the government decides to decamp to another place, leaving the residents to their own devices and anticipating a descent into anarchic catastrophe. However, nothing of the sort happens. Everyone goes about his or her daily life, and the city continues as normal.

In this allegory, first published in 2004, Saramago ruthlessly satirises the disaffection of a growing number of people with the instituted rituals of representative democracy. Thousands of passive rebels refuse to do what is expected of them. They reject the ballot box, and just go on with life as if nothing has happened. With chilling precision, Saramago diagnoses the deadlock of contemporary ‘democratic’ governance. We live in times both haunted and paradoxical. Instituted representational democracy is more widespread than ever; identitarian concerns and all manner of issues and problems are made visible and politicised; ‘participatory’ and ‘inclusive’ forms of governance are nurtured and fostered on a range of geographical scales; and lifestyle preferences, the unsustainable re-engineering of our climate, the sexual escapades of the former IMF chairman, the heroic resistances of indigenous peoples, fracking, the repression of gay people in Russia, the garbage left on the sidewalk, the plight of the whale, the governments’ austerity agendas to get the economy out of the doldrums – all these issues and an infinity of others are politicised in certain ways. That is, they are discussed, dissected, evaluated, raised as issues of public concern and debated at length in a variety of public and political arenas. Everything, so it seems, can be aired, made visible, discussed, and rendered contentious.

(in Seeds of Dystopia: Post-Politics and the Return of the Political, Japhy Wilson and Erik Swyngedouw, pp. 1-2)